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Vocabulary Word

Word: reciprocal

Definition: mutual; given and received in return; exchangeable; interacting; Ex. reciprocal trade agreement


Sentences Containing 'reciprocal'

The reciprocal duties of master and apprentice make a considerable article in every modern code.
The gains of both are mutual and reciprocal, and the division of labour is in this, as in all other cases, advantageous to all the different persons employed in the various occupations into which it is subdivided.
There is often the widest possible difference in the facility of making reciprocal crosses.
The diversity of the result in reciprocal crosses between the same two species was long ago observed by Kolreuter.
Gartner, moreover, found that this difference of facility in making reciprocal crosses is extremely common in a lesser degree.
It is also a remarkable fact that hybrids raised from reciprocal crosses, though of course compounded of the very same two species, the one species having first been used as the father and then as the mother, though they rarely differ in external characters, yet generally differ in fertility in a small, and occasionally in a high degree.
This latter statement is clearly proved by the difference in the result of reciprocal crosses between the same two species, for, according as the one species or the other is used as the father or the mother, there is generally some difference, and occasionally the widest possible difference, in the facility of effecting an union.
The hybrids, moreover, produced from reciprocal crosses often differ in fertility.
Why should there often be so great a difference in the result of a reciprocal cross between the same two species?
As in reciprocal crosses, the facility of effecting an union is often very far from equal, so it sometimes is in grafting.
In the second place, it is almost as much opposed to the theory of natural selection as to that of special creation, that in reciprocal crosses the male element of one form should have been rendered utterly impotent on a second form, while at the same time the male element of this second form is enabled freely to fertilise the first form; for this peculiar state of the reproductive system could hardly have been advantageous to either species.
Again, as in making reciprocal crosses between the same two species, there is occasionally a great difference in the result, so the same thing occurs with trimorphic plants; for instance, the mid-styled form of Lythrum salicaria was illegitimately fertilised with the greatest ease by pollen from the longer stamens of the short-styled form, and yielded many seeds; but the latter form did not yield a single seed when fertilised by the longer stamens of the mid-styled form.
We are also led to this same conclusion by considering reciprocal crosses, in which the male of one species cannot be united, or can be united with great difficulty, with the female of a second species, while the converse cross can be effected with perfect facility.
He experimented on five forms which are commonly reputed to be varieties, and which he tested by the severest trial, namely, by reciprocal crosses, and he found their mongrel offspring perfectly fertile.
Hybrid plants produced from a reciprocal cross generally resemble each other closely, and so it is with mongrel plants from a reciprocal cross.
It is generally different, and sometimes widely different in reciprocal crosses between the same two species.
The consideration of these facts on dimorphism, as well as of the results of reciprocal crosses, clearly leads to the conclusion that the primary cause of the sterility of crossed species is confined to differences in their sexual elements.
They were unmarried, young, of the same age and of the same tastes, which was enough to account for the reciprocal friendship between them.

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