Definition: basic; primary; essential
Definition: basic; primary; essential
Sentences Containing 'fundamental'
The principle just stated embodies one of the fundamental laws of science, called the law of the conservation of matter.
Hence, the vibrating string produces two sensations, that of the fundamental note and of its octave.
If the string is made to vibrate in two parts, it gives forth two notes, the fundamental, and a note one octave higher than the fundamental; this is called the first overtone.
The untrained ear is not conscious of overtones and recognizes only the strong dominant fundamental.
The overtones blend in with the fundamental and are so inconspicuously present that we do not realize their existence; it is only when they are absent that we become aware of the beauty which they add to the music.
It is important to remember that no matter where a string of definite length is bowed, the note most distinctly heard will be the fundamental; but the quality of the emitted tone will vary with the bowing.
In the piano, the hammers are arranged so as to strike near one end of the string, at a distance of about 1:7 to 1:9; and hence a large number of overtones combine to reenforce and enrich the fundamental tone.
The fundamental note in every instrument is the same, but the overtones vary with the instrument and lend individuality to each.
The richness and individuality of an instrument are due, not only to the overtones which accompany the fundamental, but also to the``forced''vibrations of the inclosing case, or of the sounding board.
Air columns vibrate in segments just as do strings, and the tone emitted by a pipe of given length is complex, consisting of the fundamental and one or more overtones.
The fundamental connections of the telegraph are shown in Figure 217.
Like what are called the fundamental laws of some monarchies, they might frequently hinder the security of thousands from being endangered by the caprice or extravagance of one man.
The title of Mun's book, England's Treasure in Foreign Trade, became a fundamental maxim in the political economy, not of England only, but of all other commercial countries.
The tribunes, when they had a mind to animate the people against the rich and the great, put them in mind of the ancient divisions of lands, and represented that law which restricted this sort of private property as the fundamental law of the republic.
It would, therefore, be much more proper to be established as a perpetual and unalterable regulation, or as what is called a fundamental law of the commonwealth, than any tax which was always to be levied according to a certain valuation.
Let these precepts be brief and fundamental, which as soon as thou dost call them to mind, may suffice thee to purge thy soul throughly, and to send thee away well pleased with those things whatsoever they be, which now again after this short withdrawing of thy soul into herself thou dost return unto.
Therefore amongst his other fundamental laws of this kingdom, he did ordain the interdicts and prohibitions which we have touching entrance of strangers; which at that time (though it was after the calamity of America) was frequent; doubting novelties, and commixture of manners.
No breeder doubts how strong is the tendency to inheritance; that like produces like is his fundamental belief: doubts have been thrown on this principle only by theoretical writers.
In all cases of beings, far removed from each other in the scale of organisation, which are furnished with similar and peculiar organs, it will be found that although the general appearance and function of the organs may be the same, yet fundamental differences between them can always be detected.
It is, of course, open to any one to deny that the eye in either case could have been developed through the natural selection of successive slight variations; but if this be admitted in the one case it is clearly possible in the other; and fundamental differences of structure in the visual organs of two groups might have been anticipated, in accordance with this view of their manner of formation.
Habit in all these cases appears to have come to a certain extent into play; but there must be some fundamental cause in the constitution of the nervous system in each species.
By unity of type is meant that fundamental agreement in structure which we see in organic beings of the same class, and which is quite independent of their habits of life.
From the great difficulty of ascertaining the infertility of varieties in a state of nature, for a supposed variety, if proved to be infertile in any degree, would almost universally be ranked as a species; from man attending only to external characters in his domestic varieties, and from such varieties not having been exposed for very long periods to uniform conditions of life; from these several considerations we may conclude that fertility does not constitute a fundamental distinction between varieties and species when crossed.
So that by this fundamental test of victory in the battle for life, as well as by the standard of the specialisation of organs, modern forms ought, on the theory of natural selection, to stand higher than ancient forms.
The case of America alone would almost suffice to prove its truth; for if we exclude the arctic and northern temperate parts, all authors agree that one of the most fundamental divisions in geographical distribution is that between the New and Old Worlds; yet if we travel over the vast American continent, from the central parts of the United States to its extreme southern point, we meet with the most diversified conditions; humid districts, arid deserts, lofty mountains, grassy plains, forests, marshes, lakes and great rivers, under almost every temperature.
In all such cases some fundamental difference in the growth or development of the parts, and generally in their matured structure, can be detected.
Consequently such parts, being already present in considerable numbers, and being highly variable, would naturally afford the materials for adaptation to the most different purposes; yet they would generally retain, through the force of inheritance, plain traces of their original or fundamental resemblance.
But even if they had existed in the earliest stage of their development we should learn nothing, for the feet of lizards and mammals, the wings and feet of birds, no less than the hands and feet of man, all arise from the same fundamental form."
All laws being founded on rewards and punishments, it is supposed as a fundamental principle, that these motives have a regular and uniform influence on the mind, and both produce the good and prevent the evil actions.
During the course of these troubles, the emperors of Blefusca did frequently expostulate by their ambassadors, accusing us of making a schism in religion, by offending against a fundamental doctrine of our great prophet Lustrog, in the fifty-fourth chapter of the Blundecral (which is their Alcoran).
It was now day-light, and I returned to my house without waiting to congratulate with the emperor: because, although I had done a very eminent piece of service, yet I could not tell how his majesty might resent the manner by which I had performed it: for, by the fundamental laws of the realm, it is capital in any person, of what quality soever, to make water within the precincts of the palace.
By a fundamental law of this realm, neither the king, nor either of his two eldest sons, are permitted to leave the island; nor the queen, till she is past child-bearing.
The king heard of all that had passed between me and my friends upon this occasion, and rallied me very pleasantly; wishing I could send a couple of _struldbrugs_ to my own country, to arm our people against the fear of death; but this, it seems, is forbidden by the fundamental laws of the kingdom, or else I should have been well content with the trouble and expense of transporting them.
“Their fundamental is, that all diseases arise from repletion; whence they conclude, that a great evacuation of the body is necessary, either through the natural passage or upwards at the mouth.
This fundamental thing settled, the next point is, in what internal respect does the whale differ from other fish.
More Vocab Words::: protean - able to take on many forms; versatile; CF. Proteus: sea god to change his shape at will
::: congenital - existing at birth
::: tranquillity - calmness; peace
::: expropriate - take possession of (often for public use and without payment)
::: emaciated - thin and wasted (from hunger or illness)
::: docket - program as for trial; book where such entries are made; list of things to be done; agenda; label fixed to a package listing contents or directions; V: describe in a docket
::: decipher - decode; CF. indecipherable
::: perfidious - treacherous; disloyal; N. perfidy: treachery
::: escapade - prank; flighty conduct; reckless adventure that disobeys rules
::: mangy - shabby; wretched; suffering from mange; of bad appearance