Definition: unmanageable; disobedient and stubborn; Ex. refractory horse
Definition: unmanageable; disobedient and stubborn; Ex. refractory horse
Sentences Containing 'refractory'
The officiating undertakers made some protest against these changes in the ceremonies; but, the river being alarmingly near, and several voices remarking on the efficacy of cold immersion in bringing refractory members of the profession to reason, the protest was faint and brief.
The means commonly employed, however, the imprisonment of all the refractory members, one would think, were forcible enough.
Nor is there any need of transporting them beyond seas, for if any are refractory they should be sent to our stannaries and other mines, to our coal works and other places where hard labour is required.
Clozapine is an effective treatment for those who respond poorly to other drugs ("treatment-resistant" or "refractory" schizophrenia), but it has the potentially serious side effect of agranulocytosis (lowered white blood cell count) in less than 4% of people.
This is used in the treatment of refractory ascites, bleeding from oesophageal varices and hepatorenal syndrome.
It is effective in treating refractory post-stroke pain, atypical face pain, anaesthesia dolorosa, and deafferentation and somatic pain such as in phantom limb or brachial plexus injury (Boccard et al. 2013).
The Steetley refractory works on Station Lane closed in the 1980s with half the site being redeveloped for housing while the remaining half was taken over by Intermet Refractory Products Ltd.
For treatment of deep-seated tumors in relative vicinity of the heart, pulses are synchronized with absolute refractory period of each heartbeat to minimize the probability of interaction of pulses with the heart function.
There are more than twenty deposits of refractory and fireclay.
The Lipovetskoye Deposit of refractory clay is located in Oktyabrsky District. The estimated stocks total about 1.5 million tons.
Today, Angang consists of three steelworks with 13 rolling mills plus supporting plants which produce coke, refractory materials and machinery for the steel plants.
A smaller fraction of all dust in space consists of larger refractory minerals that condensed as matter left the stars.
Stardust grains are solid refractory pieces of individual presolar stars.
"Stardust" is a scientific term referring to refractory dust grains that condensed from cooling ejected gases from individual presolar stars and mixed into the cloud from which the Solar System condensed.
These refractory mineral grains may earlier have been coated with volatile compounds, but those are lost in the dissolving of meteorite matter in acids, leaving only insoluble refractory minerals.
An important property of stardust is the hard, refractory, high-temperature nature of the grains.
The large grains in interstellar space are probably complex, with refractory cores that condensed within stellar outflows topped by layers acquired subsequently during incursions into cold dense interstellar clouds.
The red-giant stars have evolved off the main sequence and have entered the giant phase of their evolution and are the major source of refractory dust grain cores in galaxies.
Those refractory cores are also called Stardust (section above), which is a scientific term for the small fraction of cosmic dust that condensed thermally within stellar gases as they were ejected from the stars.
Several percent of refractory grain cores have condensed within expanding interiors of supernovae, a type of cosmic decompression chamber.
And meteoriticists that study this refractory stardust extracted from meteorites often call it presolar grains, although the refractory stardust that they study is actually only a small fraction of all presolar dust. Stardust condenses within the stars via considerably different condensation chemistry than that of the bulk of cosmic dust, which accretes cold onto preexisting dust in dark molecular clouds of the galaxy.
On the other hand, grains are seen to have recently formed in the vicinity of nearby stars, in nova and supernova ejecta, and in R Coronae Borealis variable stars which seem to eject discrete clouds containing both gas and dust. So mass loss from stars is unquestionably where the refractory cores of grains formed.
Some molecules also formed complex organic compounds and some molecules formed frozen ice mantles, of which either could coat the "refractory" (Mg, Si, Fe) grain cores.
Stardust once more provides an exception to the general trend, as it appears to be totally unprocessed since its thermal condensation within stars as refractory crystalline minerals.
The volatile elements have never seen temperatures above about 500 K, therefore, the IDP grain "matrix" consists of some very primitive Solar System material. Such a scenario is true in the case of comet dust. The provenance of the small fraction that is stardust (see above) is quite different; these refractory interstellar minerals thermally condense within stars, become a small component of interstellar matter, and therefore remain in the presolar planetary disk.
Recurrent or refractory bleeding may lead to need for surgery, although this has bencome uncommon as a result of improved endoscopic and medical treatment.
The chamber where the body is placed is called a "retort" and is lined with heat-resistant refractory bricks.
Refractory bricks are designed in several layers.
Refractory bricks are typically replaced every five years, because thermal fatigue gradually introduces fissures that reduce the insulating strength.
For heavy duty cremators having an inner sacrificial layer of refractory material, often cracks, slagging, bulging and dislocation can be seen on this layer shortly after the cremator is put into use.
During this time the structure, built of refractory bricks, absorbs the heat.
It is produced during various melting and firing processes, and is used as a refractory material, due to its high melting point of 1840°C. In 2006 researchers at University College London and Cardiff University discovered that potters in the Hesse region of Germany since the late Middle Ages had used mullite in the manufacture of a type of crucible (known as Hessian crucibles), that were renowned for enabling alchemists to heat their crucibles to very high temperatures.
A well-cemented sandstone of nearly pure quartz, in the 19th century it was widely used in construction and in refractory linings for iron furnaces.
Potsdam Sandstone resists spalling when exposed to fire, making it highly suitable for use as a refractory for lining iron furnaces.
Phase II clinical trials in adult patients with refractory partial seizures were promising.
In the past scleroderma renal crisis was almost uniformily fatal. While outcomes have improved significantly with the use of ACE inhibitors the prognosis is often guarded, as a significant number of patients are refractory to treatment and develop renal failure.
Women are able to achieve multiple orgasms due to the fact that they generally do not require a refractory period like men do after the first orgasm; though generally reported that women do not experience a refractory period and thus can experience an additional orgasm, or multiple orgasms, soon after the first, some sources state that both men and women experience a refractory period because women may also experience a period after orgasm in which further sexual stimulation does not produce excitement.
AC current can provide a self-cleaning effect, removing the thin, refractory aluminium oxide (sapphire) layer that forms on aluminium metal within minutes of exposure to air.
Although some treatments exist, they are often expensive, chemically based, invasive, and only treat patients for some time before they need more treatment, called "refractory treatment."
The last 50 years have been filled with refractory treatment research.
DSF Refractories and Minerals Limited is the last major British producer of refactories, specializing in specialist shaped and unshaped refractory products.
DSF also a processor and supplier of crushed and graded refractory raw materials for other applications such as coloured road-stone.
Pierre Dumoulin-Borie had as a godfather his uncle Pierre Borie, a priest refractory during the Revolution, and then curé of Sionac; but an uncle, Jean Borie, was an administrator of Corrèze, deputy in the Legislative Parliament and Convention, and one of those who voted for the death of Louis XVI.
Here during their stay, the Máchhí tribes, who had become rather turbulent and refractory, were punished, their cattle and property plundered and their villages razed to the grounds.
Erythroid dysplasia may be caused by vitamin deficiency or chemotherapy, or it may be a sign of refractory anemia, which is a myelodysplastic syndrome.
Seclusion rooms and refractory wards were used for resistive patients, even when their forms of resistance were non-violent.
Refractory xenocrysts (olivine, orthopyroxene, spinel) from Level Mountain basalt and spinel lherzolites from nearby vents in the Stikine Canyon and at Castle Rock support this contention.
It is used to treat refractory ovarian cancer.
It also has the advantage of being less toxic than other drugs used for treating refractory ovarian cancer.
More Vocab Wordsmalefactor - evildoer; criminal
ramify - branch out; divide into branches or subdivisions
lumen - unit of light energy (one candle's worth)
ephemeral - short-lived; fleeting
infraction - violation (of a rule or regulation); breach
lexicographer - compiler of a dictionary; CF. lexicography: work of compiling a dictionary
episodic - (of a story or play) loosely connected; made up of separate and loosely connected parts; N. episode: incident in the course of an experience
viper - poisonous snake
bargain - agreement between two groups or people; something for sale at a price advantageous to the buyer; V: negotiate; trade; Ex. bargaining power
stymie - thwart; present an obstacle; stump