Definition: platitude; chemical compound used to calm excitement
Definition: platitude; chemical compound used to calm excitement
Sentences Containing 'bromide'
Potassium bromide (KBr) is a salt, widely used as an anticonvulsant and a sedative in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with over-the-counter use extending to 1975 in the US.
Its action is due to the bromide ion (sodium bromide is equally effective).
Potassium bromide is used as a veterinary drug, as an antiepileptic medication for dogs.
Under standard conditions, potassium bromide is a white crystalline powder.
In a dilute aqueous solution, potassium bromide tastes sweet, at higher concentrations it tastes bitter, and tastes salty when the concentration is even higher.
These effects are mainly due to the properties of the potassium ion—sodium bromide tastes salty at any concentration.
In high concentration, potassium bromide strongly irritates the gastric mucous membrane, causing nausea and sometimes vomiting (a typical effect of all soluble potassium salts).
Potassium bromide, a typical ionic salt, is fully dissociated and near pH 7 in aqueous solution.
A traditional method for the manufacture of KBr is the reaction of potassium carbonate with a bromide of iron, Fe3Br8, made by treating scrap iron under water with excess bromine: Applications.
The anticonvulsant properties of potassium bromide were first noted by Sir Charles Locock at a meeting of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society in 1857.
Bromide can be regarded as the first effective medication for epilepsy.
Locock noted that bromide calmed sexual excitement and thought this was responsible for his success in treating seizures.
In the latter half of the 19th century, potassium bromide was used for the calming of seizure and nervous disorders on an enormous scale, with the use by single hospitals being as much as several tons a year (the dose for a given person being a few grams per day).
It was often said the British Army laced soldiers' tea with bromide to quell sexual arousal—but that is likely untrue as doing so would also diminish alertness in battle and similar stories exist about a number of substances.
Bromide compounds, especially sodium bromide, remained in over-the-counter sedatives and headache remedies (such as the original formulation of Bromo-Seltzer) in the US until 1975, when bromides were outlawed in all over-the-counter medicines, due to chronic toxicity.
Bromide's exceedingly long half life in the body made it difficult to dose without side effects (see below).
Potassium bromide is used in veterinary medicine to treat epilepsy in dogs, either as first-line treatment or in addition to phenobarbital, when seizures are not adequately controlled with phenobarbital alone.
Use of bromide in cats is limited because it carries a substantial risk of causing lung inflammation (pneumonitis) in them.
The use of bromide as a treatment drug for animals means that veterinary medical diagnostic laboratories are able as a matter of routine to measure serum levels of bromide on order of a veterinarian, whereas human medical diagnostic labs in the US do not measure bromide as a routine test. Potassium bromide is not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in humans to control seizures.
Potassium bromide tablets are sold under the brand name "Dibro-Be mono" (Rx-only).
The drug has almost complete bioavailability, but the bromide ion has a relatively long half life of 12 days in the blood, making bromide salts difficult to adjust and dose.
Bromide is not known to interfere with the absorption or excretion of any other anticonvulsant, though it does have strong interactions with chloride in the body, the normal body uptake and excretion of which strongly influences bromide's excretion.
The therapeutic index (ratio of effectiveness to toxicity) for bromide is small.
Potassium bromide is transparent from the near ultraviolet to long-wave infrared wavelengths (0.25-25 µm) and has no significant optical absorption lines in its high transmission region.
In infrared spectroscopy, samples are analyzed by grinding with powdered potassium bromide and pressing into a disc.
Alternatively, samples may be analyzed as a liquid film (neat, as a solution, or in a mull with Nujol) between two polished potassium bromide discs.
In addition to manufacture of silver bromide, potassium bromide is used as a restrainer in black and white developer formulas.
Carbethopendecinium bromide is a quaternary ammonium compound used as antiseptic and disinfectant.
Carbethopendecinium bromide is the active substance in antiseptic and disinfecting products prepared in the Czech Republic under the trademarks Septonex (also Ophtalmo-Septonex, Mukoseptonex etc.) and Otipur.
Most accounts of the paper prints collection never mention the chemical composition of the photographs, but archivists at Ohio State University who received one of the restoration printers used for the conversion project refer to these photographic prints as existing on bromide photographic paper.
No specifications could be found on the composition of bromide paper of the time, but one manufacturer today is Kentmere.
Their bromide paper “features a conventional double weight fiber-base, coated with a neutral tone bromide emulsion…Glossy unglazed surface only.
Many veterans were given pyridostigmine bromide (PB) pills to protect against nerve gas agents such as sarin and soman.
Despite being easily made by the reaction of methylecgonidine with phenylmagnesium bromide, the relative scarcity of methylecgonidine and the demanding reaction conditions required for the synthesis put production of this compound beyond the capacity of most illicit drug manufacturers, and legitimate supplies of troparil are available only in very small quantities for a very high price.
The synthesis comprised borontrifluoride-catalyzed addition of methyl isopropyl ketone to 1-ethoxyprop-1-yne, which afforded ethyl 2,3,4-trimethylpent-2-enoate, and then was transformed into the target molecule by Grignard reaction with propen-1-ylmagnesium bromide via in situ enolization.
Each vial contains 12 mg of methylnaltrexone bromide.
To begin, UV light is shone on the gel in order to illuminate all the ethidium bromide-stained DNA.
An alternative method, utilizing SYBR Safe DNA gel stain and blue-light illumination, avoids the DNA damage associated with ethidium bromide and UV light.
A butanol extraction removes the ethidium bromide stain, followed by a phenol/chloroform extraction of the cleaned DNA fragment.
Bromyrite or bromargyrite is a natural mineral form of silver bromide found mainly in Mexico and Chile.
More Vocab Words::: scruple - hesitate for ethical reasons; fret about; Ex. She did not scruple to read his diary; N: uneasy feeling arising from conscience; conscience
::: sever - separate; cut off (a part) from a whole; break up (a relationship); N. severance; CF. severance pay: extra pay given an employee upon leaving a position
::: inexorable - relentless; unyielding; implacable; not capable of being changed by entreaty or efforts; Ex. inexorable price rises
::: glossary - brief explanation of words used in the text
::: flout - reject; mock; show contempt for; scorn; Ex. flout the rules
::: conformist - person who uncritically conforms to the customs of a group; OP. nonconformist: one who does not conform to accepted beliefs of norms
::: whine - complain (in a sad voice); make a high sad sound (as in pain or supplication)
::: prepossessing - attractive; CF. preoccupying ?
::: cavil - quibble; make frivolous objections; find fault unnecessarily
::: seep - pass slowly through small openings; ooze; trickle; N. seepage